RESEARCHING THE REAL WORLD



MAIN MENU

Basics

Orientation Observation In-depth interviews Document analysis and semiology Conversation and discourse analysis Secondary Data Surveys Experiments Ethics Research outcomes
Conclusion

References

Activities

Social Research Glossary

About Researching the Real World

Search

Contact

© Lee Harvey 2012–2017

Page updated 11 June, 2017

Citation reference: Harvey, L., 2012–2017, Researching the Real World, available at qualityresearchinternational.com/methodology
All rights belong to author.


 

A Guide to Methodology

Researching the Real World

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

References: M

MacDonald, M., Harvey, L. and Hill, J., 2000, Theories and Methods (Access To Sociology) London, Hodder Education (1 May 2000). Cited in: 3.2.1.2

MacDonald, M., 1997a, 'Doing ethnography in prisons: Italian initiatives on drugs, HIV/AIDS; initial identification of issues', in Liverpool Health Authority, 1997, Healthy Prisons, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press. Cited in:

MacDonald, M., 1997b, Mandatory Drug Testing in Prisons. Birmingham, CRQ and School of Sociology. ISBN 1859201112. Cited in: 4.3

MacDonald, M., 1998, 'Mandatory drug testing in prisons', Prison Service Journal, 22-24(2). Cited in: 1.15.2

MacDonald, R., Shildrick, T., Webster, C. and Simpson, D., 2005, ‘Growing up in poor neighbourhoods: the significance of class and place in the extended transitions of ‘socially excluded’ young adults’, Sociology, 39(5), pp. 873–91. Cited in: 1.8.1

MacDonald, R. and Marsh, J., 2001, ‘Disconnected youth?’, Journal of Youth Studies 4(4), pp. 373–91. Cited in: 1.8.1

MacDonald, R. and Marsh, J., 2002, ‘Crossing the Rubicon: youth transitions, poverty drugs and social exclusion’, International Journal of Drug Policy, 13, pp. 27–38. Cited in: 1.8.1

MacDonald, R. and Marsh, J., 2005, Disconnected Youth? Growing up in Britain’s Poor Neighbourhoods. Basingstoke, Palgrave. Cited in: 1.8.1

MacIntosh, J., 1993, ‘Focus groups in distance nursing education’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 18(12), pp. 1981–85. Cited in: 4.4.3.6.4

Macskassy, S.A. and Michelson, M., 2011, 'Why do people retweet? Anti-homophily wins the day!' in Proceedings of the Fifth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, Barcelona, July, pp. 209–16. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI. Cited in 7.4.3.2

MacKellar, D.A., Valleroy, L.A., Secura, G.M., Bartholow, B.N., McFarland, W., Shehan, D., Ford, W., LaLota, M., Celentano, D.D., Koblin, B.A. Torian, L.V., Perdue, T.E., Janssen, R.S. and Young Men's Survey Study Group, 2002, ‘Repeat HIV testing, risk behaviors, and hiv seroconversion among young men who have sex with men: a call to monitor and improve the practice of prevention’, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 29(1), pp. 76–85. Cited in: 8.3.10.2.1

Macionis, J.J. and Plummer, S., 1985, 1997, Sociology - A Global Introduction. Prentice Hall. Cited in: 3.3.2.4.1

Mack, J. and Lansley, K., 1985, 'Pressure point: the crisis in management' in Ward, S. (Ed.), 1985, DHSS in Crisis: Social secuirity under pressure and under review. London, Child Action Poverty Group. Cited in: CASE STUDY Operationalising Poverty,

Mack, J. and Lansley, K., 1991, Breadline Britain in the 1990s, London, Allen and Unwin. Cited in:

Maggs-Rapport, F., 2001,'‘Best research practice’: in pursuit of methodological rigour', Methodological Issues in Nursing Practice, 35(3), 373–83. Cited in: 5.9.1

Maguire, M. 2005, ‘Textures of class in the context of schooling: the perceptions of a ‘class-crossing’ teacher’, Sociology, 39(3), pp. 427–43. Cited in: 4.4.2.2, 4.5.2

Magnusson, M. and Westberg, A., 2003, 'Information and communication technology (ICT) in aphasia therapy—reflections on clinical experiences', paper presented at Stockholm Institute of Education, The Disability and Handicap Research Group, Sweden available in conference proceedings at http://www.csun.edu/cod/conf/2003/proceedings/328.htm, accessed 2 December 2012. Cited 1.8.2

Malamuth, N., & Ceniti, J., 1986, 'Repeated exposure to violent and nonviolent pornography: likelihood of raping ratings and laboratory aggression against women', Aggressive Behavior, 12, 129−137. Cited in: 9.1.5

Malinowski, B., 1922, Argonauts of the Western Pacific: An account of native enterprise and adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul. Cited in: 3.2.1.2, 3.3.2.7, 6.7.4.1

Malinowski, B., 1923, 'The problem of meaning in primitive languages', in Ogden, C.K. and Richards, I.A., The Meaning of Meaning: A study of the influence of language upon thought and of the science of symbolism, pp. 296–336, New York, Harcourt, Brace and World. Cited in 6.4.3,

Malinowski, B., 1954, Magic, Science, and Religion. New York, Doubleday Anchor Books. Cited in: 3.3.2.7,

Malone , M., 1997, Worlds of Talk: The presentation of self in everyday life. Oxford:Polity Press Cited in: 6.2.2 fn1

Mandelbaum, D. G., 1982,’The Study of Life History’, in Burgess (ed.), 1982, Field Research: A sourcebook and field manual. London, Allen and Unwin. Cited in: 4.3.2.4,

Manning, P.K., 1971, 'Fixing what you feared: notes on the campus abortion search', in Henslin J. (Ed.) The Sociology of Sex. New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts. Cited in: 3.3.1.5.3 fn1

Marcus, G. and Fischer, M., 1986, Anthropology as Cultural Critique: An experimental moment in the human sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cited in 1.11

Marcuse, H., 1964, One-Dimensional Man: Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. London, Ark. Cited in:

Marshall, A., 1994, 'Sensuous sapphires: a study of the social construction of black female sexuality', in Maynard, M. and Purvis, J. (Eds.) 1994, Researching Women's Lives from a Feminist Perspective. London. Taylor & Francis, pp. 106–24. Cited in:

Marshall, C. and G. Rossman, 1989, Designing Qualitative Research, 2nd edn. London, Sage. Cited in: 1.10.1,

Marshall, G., 1986, 'The workplace culture of a licensed restaurant', Theory, Culture and Society, 3, no. 1, pp. 33–47. Cited in: 3.1, 3.3.3.3, CASE STUDY Dixie's Place,

Marshall, J.W, Ruth, B.J, Sisco, S., Bethke, C., Piper, T.M., Cohen, M. and Bachman, S., 2011, ‘Social work interest in prevention: a content analysis of the professional literature’, Social Work, 56(3), pp. 201–11. Cited in: 5.6.2

Martin, G., 2002, 'New Age Travellers: uproarious or uprooted', Sociology , 36(3), pp. 723–35. Cited in: 3.2.5

Martin, M., Rissmiller, P. and Beal, J., 1995, ‘Health-illness beliefs and practices of Haitians with HIV disease living in Boston’, Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 6, pp. 45–53. Cited in: 3.1

Marton, F., 1981, ‘Phenomenography: describing conceptions of the world around us’, Instructional Science, 10, pp. 177–200. Cited in: 4.3.2.1.1

Marwick, A. and boyd, D., 2011, ‘“I tweet honestly, I tweet passionately”: Twitter users, context collapse and the imagined audience’, New Media and Society, 13(1), pp. 114–33. Cited in: 7.4.3.2

Marx, G.T., 1984, 'Role models and role distance: a remembrance of Erving Goffman', Theory and Society, 13, pp. 649–62. Cited in: 3.3.2.4.1

Marx, K. and Engels, F., [1848] 1996, The Communist Manifesto. London, Phoenix. [Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei] Cited in: Case Study Marx's Das Kapital, 2.4.1.1

Marx, K., 1880, ‘A Worker’s Enquiry’ La Revue socialiste, April 20, 1880. Available at https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1880/04/20.htm (accessed 24 February 2016). Cited in: 8.2.7

Marx, K., [1887] 1977, Capital. London, Lawrence and Wishart. Cited in: 2.4.2.3, 2.4.2.5, 2.4.2.7, 7.7

Marx, K., 1963, Cited in: 3.3.3.3

Mason, J., 1996, Qualitative Researching. Thousand Oaks,Calif., Sage. More information. Cited in: 1.11, 3.3.2.2.2

Master, P., 1991, ‘Active verbs with inanimate subjects in scientific prose’, English for Specific Purposes, 10, pp. 15–34. Cited in: 6.3.3

Matoesian, G.M., 1993, Reproducing Rape: Domination through talk in the courtroom. Cambridge, Polity Press and Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Cited in: 2.3.1.3.3, 6.2.6, 6.2.7

Mauthner, N. and Doucet, A., 1998, 'Reflections on a voice-centred relational method: analysing maternal and domestic voices' in Ribbens, J. and Edwards, R., (Eds.), 1998, Feminist Dilemmeas in Qualitative Research: Public knowledge and private lives. London, Sage, pp. 119–46. Cited in: 1.11, CASE STUDY A method for reflexivity,

Mauthner, N.S., Parry, O. and Backett-Milburn, K., 1998, 'The data are out there, or are they? Implications for archiving and revisiting qualitative data', Sociology, 32(4), pp. 733–45. Cited in: 4.5.1

Mauthner, N. and Doucet, A., 2003, 'Reflexive accounts and accounts of
reflexivity in qualitative data analysis' Sociology, 37(3), pp. 413–431. Cited in: 1.11, CASE STUDY A method for reflexivity,

Mauthner, N.S., 1999, ‘“Feeling low and feeling really bad about feeling low”: women’s experiences of motherhood and postpartum depression’, Canadian Psychology, 40, pp. 143–61. Cited in: CASE STUDY A method for reflexivity,

Mauthner, N.S., 2002, The Darkest Days of My Life: Stories of postpartum
depression
. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Cited in: CASE STUDY A method for reflexivity,

Maxwell, J.A., 1992, 'Understanding and validity in qualitative research', Harvard Educational Review, 62(3), pp. 279–300. Cited in: 1.8.3.1.1, 1.8.3.2.1, 1.8.3.3.1, 1.10.1

May, T., 1997, Social Research: Issues, methods and process. Buckingham, Open University Press. Cited in: 1.7.5.1

May, T., 1998, ‘Reflections and reflexivity’, in T. May and Williams, M.(Eds.) Knowing the Social World. Buckingham, Open University Press. Cited in 1.11

Maykut, P. and R. Morehouse, 1994, Beginning Qualitative Research: A philosophic and practical guide. London: Falmer. Cited in: 3.5.3.2

Maynard, D.W., 1984, Inside Plea Bargaining: The language of negotiation. New York, Plenum. Cited in: 2.3.1.3.1,

Maynard, D.W and Heritage, J., 2005, ‘Conversation analysis, doctor–patient interaction and medical communication', Medical Education, 39(4), pp. 428–35. Cited in: 6.2.6

Maynard, M. 1994. ‘Methods, practice and epistemology: the debate about feminism and research’, in Maynard, M. and Purvis, J. (Eds.), Researching Women’s Lives from a Feminist Perspective. London: Taylor and Francis. Cited in: 4.3.3.3, 4.4.3.1.4, 4.4.3.1.6

Maynard, M. and Purvis, J. (Eds.) 1994, Researching Women's Lives from a Feminist Perspective. London. Taylor & Francis. Cited in: 2.4.1.5.2, 4.4.3.1.5

Mayntz, R., Holm, K. and Huebner, R., 1976, Introduction to Empirical Sociology, Harmondsworth, Penguin. Cited in: 9.1,

McCall, G.J. and Simmons, J.L. (Eds.). 1969, Issues in Participant Observation: A text and reader. Reading, Mass. Addison Wesley. Cited in: 3.1 NOT IN 3.1

McHoul, A., 1990, ‘Critique and description: an analysis of Bogen and Lynch’, Journal of Pragmatics, 14(3), pp. 523–32. Cited in: 6.2.7

McHoul, A., 1994, ‘Towards a critical ethnomethodology’, Theory, Culture and Society, 11, pp. 105–26. Cited in: 6.2.7

McKee, L. and O’Brien, M., 1983, ‘Interviewing men’ in Gamarnikow, E. et al. (Eds.) The Public and the Private, London: Heinemann. Cited in: : 4.4.2.5

McLeod, S.A., 2014, Theories of Personality. Originally available at: www.simplypsychology.org/personality-theories.html (accessed 24 February 2016; no longer available 12 December 2016). Cited in: 8.2.7

McNeil, P., 1990, Research Methods, London, Routledge. Cited in 8.3.5

McPhee, R.D., Myers, K.K. and Trethewey, E., 2006, ‘On collective mind and conversational analysis: response to Cooren’, Management Communication Quarterly, 19(3), pp. 312–26. Cited in: 6.2.6, 6.2.7

McRobbie, A. 1982. ‘The politics of feminist research: between talk, text and action’. Feminist Review, 12, pp. 46–57. Cited in: 4.4.3.1.6

Mead, M., 1928, Coming of Age in Samoa: A psychological study of primitive youth for Western civilisation. New York, Morrow. Cited in: 3.2.6

Measor, L. and Woods, P., 1984, Changing Schools: Pupil perspectives on transfer to a comprehensive, Milton Keynes, Open University Press. Cited in: 4.3.2.3

Menon, M.E., 2016, 'Productivity as an indication of quality in higher education: the views of employed grduates in Greece', Quality in Higher Education, 22(3). Cited in: 3.3.1.1.2.1

Merleau-Ponty, M., 1962, Phenomenology of Perception. London, Routledge. Cited in: 6.1.2

Merton, R.K., 1948, 'The self-fulfilling prophecy', Antioch Review, 8, pp. 193–210. Cited in: 1.11

Merton, R.K., 1949, Social Theory and Social Structure. Glencoe, IL, Free Press. Cited in: 1.11

Merton, R.K., [1949] 1968, Social Theory and Social Structure. Glencoe, IL, Free Press. Cited in: 2.2.3

Merton, R.K., Gollin, A.E and Kendall, P.L., 1956, The Focused Interview: A manual of problems and procedures. New York, The Free Press. Cited in: 4.2.3, 4.4.3.6.1

Meyer, D., 2010, ‘Evaluating the severity of hate-motivated violence: intersectional differences among LGBT hate crime victims’, Sociology, 44(5), pp. 980–95. Cited in: 4.4.2.2

Midtbøen, A.H., 2015, ‘The context of employment discrimination: interpreting the findings of a field experiment’, British Journal of Sociology, 66(1), pp. 193–214. Cited in 9.2

Miles, I. and Irvine, J., 1979, ‘The critique of Official Statistics’ in Irvine, J., Miles, I., and Evans, J. (Eds.), 1979, Demystifying Social Statistics. London, Pluto, pp. 113–29. Cited in 7.6.3.1

Miles, M. and Huberman, H., 1994, ‘Data management and analysis methods’, in Denzin N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (Eds,) Handbook of Qualitative Research. London, Sage. Cited in: CASE STUDY A method for reflexivity

Miller, C.R., 1994, ‘Rhetorical community: the cultural basis of genre’, in Freedman, A. and Medway, P. (Eds.) Genre and the New Rhetoric, London, Taylor and Francis. Cited in: 6.3.2

Mills, C.W., 1956, The Power Elite. New York, Oxford University Press. Cited in: 2.4.1.4

Mills, C. W., [1959] 1973, The Sociological Imagination. Harmondsworth, Penguin. Cited in: 2.4.1.4

Mills, C. W., 1966, Sociology and Pragmatism: The higher learning in America,(edited with and Introduction by I.L. Horowitz.) New York, Galaxy. Cited in: 2.4.1.4

Milroy, L., 1987, Observing and Analysing Natural Language: A critical account of sociolinguistic method. Oxford, Basil Blackwell. Cited in 3.2.2.3

Mirza H.S. and Reay, D., 2000, 'Spaces and places of Black educational desire: rethinking Black supplementary schools as a New Social Movement', Sociology, 34(3), pp. 521–44. Cited in: 3.2.6

Mishler, E.G., 1986, Research Interviewing: Context and narrative. Cambridge,
MA, Harvard University Press. Cited in: CASE STUDY A method for reflexivity, 4.3.3.3, 4.4.3.1.3

Mitchell, R., 1993, Secrecy and Fieldwork. London, Sage. Cited in: 3.2.2.3.1

Mitcheson, J. and Cowley, S., 2003, ‘Empowerment or control? An analysis of the extent to which client participation is enabled during health visitor/client interactions using a structured health needs assessment tool’, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 40(4), pp. 413–26. Cited in: 6.2.6

Mogalakwe, M., 2006, ‘The use of documentary research methods in social research’, African Sociological Review, 10, (1), pp. 221–30. Cited in: 5.3.8, 5.4

Moi, T., 1990, Feminist Theory and Simone de Beauvoir, Oxford, Blackwell. Cited in: 2.4.1.5.2

Moneyham, L., Seals, B., Demi, A., et al., 1996, ‘Experiences of disclosure in women infected with HIV’, Health Care for Women International, 7, pp. 209–11. Cited in: 3.1

Montgomery, M., 2007, The Discourse of Broadcast News: A linguistic approach. London, Routledge. Cited in 6.3.1.1

Morgan D.L., 1988, Focus Groups as Qualitative Research. London: Sage. Cited in: 4.4.3.6, 4.4.3.6.1, 4.4.3.6.2, 4.4.3.6.5

Morgan D.L., 1997, Focus Groups as Qualitative Research (Second edition). Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. Cited in: 4.4.3.6.4

Morgan, D.L and Spanish, M.T., 1984, ‘Focus groups: a new tool for qualitative research. Qualitative Sociology, 7(3), pp. 253–70. Cited in: 4.4.3.6.2, 4.4.3.6.3

Morgan, D.L and Spanish, M.T., 1985, ‘Social interaction and the cognitive organisation of health-relevant knowledge’, Sociology of Health & Illness, 7(3), pp. 401–22. Cited in: 4.4.3.6.2

Morgenthau, H., J., 1967, Politics among Nations. The struggle for power and peace. Fourth Edition, Revised and Reset. New York, Alfred A. Knopf. Cited in: 1.7.3.1

Morley, D. and Brunson, C., 1999, The Nationwide Television Studies. London: Routledge. Cited in: 4.4.3.6.1

Morris, J., 1993 'Gender and disability' in Swain, J. et al.,1993, Disabling Barriers—Enabling Environments. London, Sage. Cited in:

Morrison, D.E and Henkel, R.E., 1972, The Significance Test Controversy: A reader: methodological perspectives (Oxford, Oxford University Press). Cited in: 8.4.1

Morse, J.M., Barrett, M., Mayan, M., Olson, K. and Spiers, J., 2002, 'Verification strategies for establishing reliability and validity in qualitative research', International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 1(2), Article 2. Available at http://www.ualberta.ca/~iiqm/backissues/1_2Final/html/morse.html , accessed 25 July, 2011. Cited in: 1.8.2

Moser, C. A. and Kalton, G., [1958] 1971, Survey Methods in Social Investigation (second edition). London, Heinemann,. Cited in: 4.4.3.1, 8.3.10.2.3

Moskos, P., 2008, Cop in the Hood: My year policing Baltimore's Eastern District, Princeton University Press. Cited in: 3.2.6

Moss, S., 2008, 'Discursive psychology', Psychlopedia, created 18 November 2008, available at http://www.psych-it.com.au/Psychlopedia/article.asp?id=211, accessed 4 August 2013. Cited in: 6.5.2

Mould, 1988, Mould, D., 1988, 'A critical analysis of resent research of violent erotica', Journal of Sex Research, 24, pp. 326−40. Cited in 9.1.7

Moyer, E., Igonya, E.M., Both, R., Cherutich, P. and Hardon, A., 2013, 'The duty to disclose in Kenyan health facilities: a qualitative investigation of HIV disclosure in everyday practice', SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 10(S1), pp. S60–S72. Cited in 1.15

Muirhead, M., 2000, ‘Articulation and artistry: a conversational analysis of The Awakening’, The Southern Literary Journal, 33(1), pp. 42–54. Cited in: 6.2.5.1, 6.2.7, CASE STUDY An exploration of power relations in conversation,

Mulkay, M., Potter, J. & Yearley, S., 1983, 'Why an analysis of scientific
discourse is needed', in Knorr-Cetina, K.D. & Mulkay, M., (Eds.), Science Observed:
perspectives on the social study of science,
pp.171–203, London, Sage. Cited in: 6.5.4

Mumtaz, K. and Shaheed, F., 1987, Women of Pakistan: Two steps forward, one step back? London, Zed Books. Cited in:

Munodawafa D., Gwede C. and Mubayira C., 1995, 'Using focus groups to develop HIV education among adolescent females in Zimbabwe', Health Promotion, 10(2), pp. 85-92. Cited in 4.4.3.6.7

Murthy, D.V.R., 2001, Developmental Journalism. New Delhi: Dominant Publishers. Cited in: 5.6.2

Murthy, D., 2012, ‘Towards a sociological understanding of social media: theorizing Twitter’, Sociology, 46(6), pp. 1059–73. Cited in: 7.4.3.2

Myers, G., 1990, Writing Biology: Texts in the Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge, Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin Press. Cited in: 6.3.3

Myers, G., 1992, ‘Textbooks and the sociology of scientific knowledge’, English for Specific Purposes, 11, pp. 3–18. Cited in: 6.3.3

Myers, G., undated ‘Culture Media and Communication 101: Analysing Talk’ http://bowland-files.lancs.ac.uk/staff/greg/talk.htm. Cited in: CASE STUDY an example of transcription conventions,

Top