Orientation Observation In-depth interviews Document analysis and semiology Conversation and discourse analysis Secondary Data Surveys Experiments Ethics Research outcomes



Social Research Glossary

About Researching the Real World



© Lee Harvey 2012–2017

Page updated 1 February, 2017

Citation reference: Harvey, L., 2012–2017, Researching the Real World, available at
All rights belong to author.


A Guide to Methodology

Researching the Real World


References: T

Tan, A. S., 1979, ‘TV beauty ads and role expectations of adolescent female viewers’, 56, Journalism Quarterly, pp. 283–8. Cited in:

Tang, N., 2002, 'Interviewer and interviewee relationships between women', Sociology 36(3), pp. 705–21. Cited in:, CASE STUDY Where to interview?, 4.4.3,,

Taviss, I., 1969, ‘Changes in the form of alienation: the 1900’s vs. the 1950’s’, American Sociological Review, 34 pp. 45–57. Cited in: 5.6.2

Taylor, D., undated, The Literature Review: A few tips on conducting it, available at, accessed 4 December 2012. Cited in: 1.14.2

Taylor, S.J., 1991, ‘Leaving the field: research relationships and responsibilities’,
in Shaffir, W.B. and Stebbins, R. (Eds.), Experiencing Fieldwork: An inside view
of qualitative research, pp. 238–47, Newbury Park, CA, Sage. Cited in:

Teleman, U. and Westman, M., 1997, ‘Behöver vi en nationell språkpolitik?’, Språkvård, 2, pp. 5–16. Cited in 6.6

Terrence Higgins Trust, 1990, HIV and AIDS: A medical briefing (London, The Medical and Scientific Group of the Terrence Higgins Trust). Cited in: CASE STUDY Attitudes towards homosexuality: background,

Terkel Cited in:

Thomas, S. and Hawes, T., 1994, ‘Reporting verbs in medical journal articles’, English for Specific Purposes, 13, pp. 129–48. Cited in: 6.3.3

Thomas, W.I. and Thomas, D.S., 1928, The Child in America: Behavior problems and programs. New York, Knopf. Cited in: 1.11

Thomas, W.I., 1923, The Unadjusted Girl: With cases and standpoint for behavior analysis. Boston, MA, Little, Brown. Cited in: 1.11

Thompson, E.P., [1963] 1968., The Making of the English Working Class. (With revisions). Harmondsworth, Penguin. Cited in:

Thompson, G. and Ye, Y., 1991, ‘Evaluation of the reporting verbs used in academic papers’, Applied Linguistics, 12, pp. 365–82. Cited in: 6.3.3

Thompson, J., 1988, My Life in the Klan. Nashville, TN, Rutledge Hill Press. Cited in:

Thomson, R., Bell, R., Holland, J., Henderson, S., McGrellis, S. and Sharpe, S., 2002, ‘Critical moments: choice, chance and opportunity in young people’s narratives of transition’, Sociology, 36(2), pp. 335–54. Cited in: 4.1.2,, CASE STUDY critical moments

Thornberry, T. and Krohn, M., 2000, 'The self-report method for measuring delinquency and crime', Measurement and Analysis of Crime and Justice, 4. pp. 33–83, available at, accessed 7 March 2014.

Thornton, L., 2000, Combating Corruption at the Grassroots: The Thailand experience, 1999–2000, report for the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI), Washington and Thailand, NDI, available at, accessed 21 November 2014. Cited in:

Thorvaldsen, T., Benson, L., Ståhlberg, M., Dahlström, U., Edner, M., Lund, L.H, 2013, ‘Triage of patients with moderate to severe heart failure: who should be referred to a heart failure center?’, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, available at, accessed 25 October 2013. Cited in: 7.6.1

Tinati , R., Halford , S, Carr, L. and Pope C., 2014, ‘Big data: methodological challenges and approaches for sociological analysis’, Sociology, 48(4) pp. 663–81. Cited in:, CASE STUDY Twitter analysis

Todd, K., Johal, I., Kane, A. and Barth, S., 1990, ‘Homosexuality, AIDS and Clause 28’, Birmingham Polytechnic, Sociology Research Workshop Project. Cited in:, CASE STUDY Attitudes Towards Homosexuality

Toolan, M., 1989, ‘Analysing conversation in fiction: an example from Joyce’s Portrait’, Language, Discourse, and Literature. London: Unwin Hyman, pp. 195–211. Cited in: 6.2.7

Torode, B., 2006, ‘Review of Conversation Analysis and Discourse Analysis: A comparative and critical introduction by Robin Wooffitt’, Sociological Research Online, 11(3) available at, accessed4 October 2013. Cited in 6.5.2

Townsend, P., 1974, 'Poverty as relative deprivation' in Wedderburn (Ed.), 1974, Poverty, Inequality and Class Structure Cambridge, Cambridge Univerity Press. Cited in: CASE STUDY Operationalising Poverty,

Townsend, P., 1979, Poverty in the United Kingdom, Harmondsworth, Penguin. Cited in: CASE STUDY Operationalising Poverty,

Townsend, P., Corrigan, P. and Kowarzik, U., 1987, Poverty and Labour in London, London, Low Pay Unit. Cited in: CASE STUDY Operationalising Poverty, 8.3.2, 8.3.5, 8.3.9

Townsend, P., 1991, Meaningful Statistics on Poverty. Bristol, University of Bristol. Cited in: 7.5.1

Toynbee, P., 2003, Hard Work: Life in Low-pay Britain, London: Bloomsbury, Cited in: 3.2.2,

Travers, M., 1994, 'The phenomenon of the 'radical lawyer'', Sociology, 28(1), pp. 245–58. Cited in:

Travers, M., 1997, The Reality of Law: Work and talk in a firm of criminal lawyers, Aldershot, Dartmouth. Cited in:

Trigwell, K., Prosser, M. and Waterhouse, F. 1999, ‘Relations between teachers' approaches to teaching and students' approaches to learning’, Higher Education, 37(1), pp. 57–70. Cited in:

Trigwell, K., 2000, 'Phenomenography: variation and discernment', in Rust, C. (Ed.) Improving Student Learning. Proceedings of the 1999 7th International Symposium, pp. 75–85. Oxford, Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development. Cited in:

Trochim, W.M.K., 2006, Types of reliability, available at, last updated 20 October 2006, accessed 23 November 2012. Cited in:,

Trochim, W.M.K., 2006a, Thurstone Scaling. Available at: (accessed 10 February 2016). Cited in:

Tufekci, Z. and Wilson, C, 2012, ‘Social media and the decision to participate in political protest: observations from Tahrir Square’, Journal of Communication, 62(2), pp. 363–79. Cited in:

Turner, R.H., 1953, 'The quest for universals in sociological research', American Sociological Review, 18, pp. 604–11. Cited in:

Turok, B., 1987, Africa: What can be done? London, Zed. Cited in: