Orientation Observation In-depth interviews Document analysis and semiology Conversation and discourse analysis Secondary Data Surveys Experiments Ethics Research outcomes



Social Research Glossary

About Researching the Real World



© Lee Harvey 2012–2017

Page updated 31 January, 2017

Citation reference: Harvey, L., 2012–2017, Researching the Real World, available at
All rights belong to author.


A Guide to Methodology

Researching the Real World


References: C

Cain, M. 1986. ‘Realism, feminism, methodology, and law’, International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 14, pp. 255–67, Cited in:

Cain, M., 1993, 'Foucault, feminism and feeling: what Foucault can and cannot contribute to feminist epistemology' in Ramazanoglu, C., Up Asgainst Foucault: Explorations of some tensions between Foucault and feminism. London, Routledge. Cited in:

Calvey, D., 2008, 'The art and politics of covert research: doing 'situated ethics' in the field', Sociology, 42(5), pp. 905–918. Cited in:

Campbell, A., 1984, The Girls in the Gang. Oxford, Blackwell. Cited in:, CASE STUDY Female Street Gangs,

Caparara, A., Seri, D., De Gregório, G. et al., 1993, ‘The perception of AIDS in the Bete and the Baoule of the Ivory Coast’, Social Science and Medicine, 36, pp. 1229–35. Cited in: 3.1

Capelhorn J. and Saunders, J., 1993, 'Factors associated with heroine users’ AIDS risk-taking behaviours', Australian Journal of Public Health, 17, pp. 13–17. Cited in: 3.1

Carneiro, S.M.A, 2012, A Systems Biology approach for the characterization of metabolic bottlenecks in recombinant protein production processes, Universidade do Minho, Escola de Engenharia, September, available at, accessed 4 December 2012. Cited in: 1.14.2

Carey, J.T., 1975, Sociology and Public Affairs: The Chicago School. Beverly Hills, CA, Sage. Cited in:

Cavan, R.S., 1929, ‘Topical summaries of current literature: interviewing for life-history material’, American Journal of Sociology, 35(1), pp. 100–15. Cited in:

Cavendish, R., 1982, Women on the Line. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul. Cited in: 3.1,

Chadwick, B.A., Bahar, H.M. and Albrecht, S.L., 1984, 'Content analysis', in Chadwick B.A., 1984, Social Science Research Methods, pp. 239–57. New Jersey, Prentice –Hall. Cited in:

Chalmers, A.F., 1973, 'On learning from our mistakes', British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 2, pp. 164–73. Cited in: 1.7.6

Chalmers, A.F., 1990, Science and its Fabrication. Buckingham, Open University Press. Cited in:

Chalmers, A.F., 1994, What is This Thing Called Science? Milton Keynes, Open University Press. Cited in: 1.4.2,,, 8.2.4

Chapoulie, J.-M., 1987, ‘Everett C. Hughes and the development of fieldwork in sociology’, Urban Life, 15(3–4), pp. 259–98. Cited in:

Chancer, L., 1987, ‘New Bedford Massachusetts, March 6, 1983–March 22, 1984: The “Before and After” of a Group Rape’, Gender & Society 1(3). Cited in: 6.2.6

Chaney, D.1994, The Cultural Turn: Scene-Setting Essays on Contemporary Cultural
. London: Routledge. Cited in:

Chaney, D., 1996, Lifestyles. London: Routledge. Cited in:

Charlesworth, S.J., 1999, A Phenomenology of Working-Class Experience. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. More information. Cited in:

Chopin, K., 1981, The Awakening. Toronto: Bantam. Cited in: 6.2.7, CASE STUDY An exploration of power relations in conversation,

Cicourel, A.V., 1974, Cognitive Sociology: Language and meaning in social interaction, Harmondsworth, Penguin. Cited in: 1.15.5

Clark, A. and Emmel, N., 2010, ‘Using walking interviews’, NCRM Realities Toolkit 13. Available at, accessed 9 September 2014. Cited in:,

Clark, C., and Pinch, T.. 1992, ‘The anatomy of a deception: Fraud and finesse in the mock auction sales ‘con’’, Qualitative Sociology, 15, pp. 151–75. Cited in: 6.2.6

Clark, C., Drew, P., Sr and Pinch, T., 1994, ‘Managing customer ‘objections’ during real-life sales negotiations’, Discourse & Society, 5, pp. 437–62. Cited in: 6.2.6

Clark, J.P., and Tifft, L.L, 1966, 'Polygraph and interview validation of self-reported delinquent behavior, American Sociological Review, 31, pp. 516–23. Cited in: CASE STUDY: Test-retest,

Clark, L.S., 2003, 'Challenges of social good in the world of Grand Theft Auto and Barbie: a case study of a community computer center for youth ', New Media & Society, 5(1), pp. 95–116. More information. Cited in: 3.1.1

Clavering, E.K. and McLaughlin, J., 2007, ‘Crossing multidisciplinary divides: exploring professional hierarchies and boundaries in focus groups’, Qualitative Health Research, 17, pp. 400–10. Cited in:

Clayman S. and Maynard, D. W., 1995, 'Ethnomethodology and conversation analysis', in Have, P. ten and Psathas, G. (Eds.) Studies in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis, Lanham, Maryland, University Press of America.; Cited in:,

Clifford, J. and Marcus, G. (Eds.), 1986, Writing Culture: The poetics and politics of ethnography. Berkeley, University of California Press. Cited in 1.11

Cockburn, C., 1983, Brothers: Male dominance and technological change. London, Pluto. Cited in:,,

Cockburn, C., 1985, Machinery of Dominance: Women, men and technical know how. London, Pluto. Cited in: 4.2.3, CASE STUDY: Using a checklist,

Cohen, E., Navaline, H. and Metzger, D., 1994, ‘High risk behaviours for HIV: a comparison between crack-abusing and opoid abusing African-American women', Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 26, pp. 233–41. Cited in: 3.1

Conboy, M., 2006, Tabloid Britain: Constructing a community through language. London, Routledge. Cited in: 6.1

Connolly, P. and Troyna, B. (Eds.), 1997, Researching Racism in Education: Politics, theory and practice (Buckingham/Philadelphia: Open University Press). Cited in: 8.4.1

Conover, M.D., Ratkiewicz, J., Francisco, M., et al., 2011,'Political polarization on Twitter', in Proceedings of the Fifth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, pp. 8996, Barcelona, July. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI. Cited in

Cook, S., 1990a, ‘Out of the shadow of the gallows’, Guardian, 6th March 1990. Cited in: CASE STUDY Attitudes towards homosexuality: background,

Cook, S., 1990b, '44% of MPs favour easing of law for gays', Guardian, 6th March 1990. Cited in: CASE STUDY Attitudes towards homosexuality: background,

Cooper, J., Lewis, R. and Urquhart, C., 2004, 'Using participant or non-participant observation to explain information behaviour', Information Research, 9(4) paper 184. Available at, accessed 1 December 2012, Cited in:,,,

Cooren, F., 2004, ‘The communicative achievement of collective minding: Analysis of board meeting excerpts’, Management Communication Quarterly, 17(4), pp. 517–51. Cited in: 6.2.6, 6.2.7

Corby, N., Wolitski, R., Thornton-Johnson, S., et al. 1991, ‘AIDS knowledge, perception of risk and behaviours among female sex partners of infection drug users’, AIDS Education and Prevention, 3, pp. 353–66. Cited in: 3.1

Costello, J., 2001, 'Nursing older dying patients: findings from an ethnographic study of death and dying in elderly care wards' Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35(1) pp. 59ff. Cited in:

Cotterill, P., 1992, ‘Interviewing women, issues of friendship, vulnerablility, and power’, Women’s Studies International Forum, 15(5–6), pp. 593–606. Cited in

Cotterill, P., 1994, Friendly Relations? Mothers and their daughters-in-law. London, Taylor & Francis. Cited in:,

Coyne, I.T., 1997, 'Sampling in qualitative research. Purposeful and theoretical sampling; merging or clear boundaries?', Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26, pp. 623–30 Cited in:

Craib, I., 1992, Modern Social Theory. Hemel Hempstead. Harvester Wheatsheaf. Cited in: 2.3.1

Crawford, G. and Gosling, V.K., 2004, 'The myth of the 'Puck Bunny': female fans and men's ice hockey', Sociology, 38(3), pp. 477–93. Cited in:

Crawford, G., 2003, 'The career of the sport supporter: The case of the Manchester Storm', Sociology, 37(2), pp. 219–37. Cited in:,

Crawford, G., 2005, Personal correspondence. E-mails dated 07 November 2005, 10.44. Cited in: 3.1,,

Cressey, D., 1953, Other People's Money. New York, Free Press. Cited in:, fn1,

Creswell, J. W., 1998, Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Cited in:

Cronbach, L.J. and Meehl, P.E., 1955, 'Construct validity in psychological tests', Psychological Bulletin, 52, p. 281–302. Cited in:

Crookes , G., 1986, Towards a validated analysis of scientific text structure’, Applied Linguistics, 7: 57–70. Cited in: 6.3.3

Crossman, R., 1991, The Crossman Diaries. London, Mandarin. Cited in

Crossley, N., 1999, 'Working utopias and social movements: an investigation using case study materials from radical mental health movements in Britain’, Sociology, 33(4) pp. 809–830. Cited in: 4.1

Crystal, D., 1997, English as a Global Language, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Cited in: 6.4.1

Curry, T.R, Gang L. and Rodriguez, S. F., 2004, ‘Does Victim Gender Increase Sentence Severity? Further Explorations of Gender Dynamics and Sentencing Outcomes’ Crime & Delinquency, 50(3), pp. 319–43. Cited in: 7.2